How to use the ® and TM Symbol
Choosing which symbol to use: ™ or ® symbol
There are two symbols commonly used to mark trademarks, they are: ® and ™.
Your business can use the ™ symbol whenever it wishes to claim a trademark. You do not need to file any paperwork or receive permission to use the ™ symbol. Use of the ™ symbol can put the competition on notice that the business considers a mark its trademark.
The ® symbol may ONLY be used AFTER the US Government grants a Federal registration certificate. The ® symbol may not be used while the Federal application is pending. Additionally, the ® symbol may only be used in connection with the goods and services listed on the registration certificate.
Understanding TM symbol purpose: Notify competitors
Even though a trademark symbol is not required, always use the correct trademark symbol with your trademark. Your competitors will be put on notice of your trademark. Then they can respect your intellectual property. Likewise, you can prevent your customers from becoming confused by always respecting the trademarks of others, whether they use the ® or ™ symbol.
Placing the ™ or ® symbol
When using your trademark, place it prominently, so people will notice it immediately. When using your trademark in printed text, use bold, italic, UPPERCASE, or a different font. Make your trademark look different from other, surrounding words. Try to use your trademark as an adjective and not as a noun. For example, “Be hip, show style, wear NIKE® shoes”.
Either symbol is usually placed to the upper right of the word, logo or other mark. Sometimes companies list the trademarks used in the material along with the owner in the footer of their website or the bottom of a printed page. For example, “Coca-Cola® and the contour bottle are registered trademarks of The Coca-Cola Company.” Remember, do not claim that your trademark is registered (or use the ® symbol) unless it is actually completed registered with the US Trademark office (www.uspto.gov). Only marks that have been filed, approved and granted the ribbon-original registration certificate by the US Trademark Office may claim to be registered in the US.
However, placement in other nearby or adjacent areas, like sub-scripted, may work well and could look better. The goal is for competitors to see the notification of your trademark claim.
Three ™ or ® placement techniques
There are usually three good ways to notify competitors. They are:
- Placement of the ™ or ® symbol right near the trademark, every time it is used.
- Placement of ™ or ® or * (asterisk) or † or (dagger) or ‡ (double dagger) symbol right near the trademark, the first time it is used and having a footnote that describes the trademarks.
- Setting of all trademark words with bold, italic, UPPERCASE, or a different font, so they are clearly different and providing a footnote that describes the trademarks.
A footnote description might read like this for federally registered marks, when the most prominent use of the trademark is marked with a dagger.
† NIKE and the swoosh logo are registered trademarks of Nike Inc.
Or a footnote description might read like this for marks not federally registered, and, when the trademark is set off from other words with bold and UPPERCASE.
NIKE and the swoosh logo are trademarks of Nike Inc.
Inserting the ® or ™ symbol into your document
Your word processor has an “insert symbol” function or “Special Character” function in the Edit or Insert menu. These functions let you find all sorts of symbols including the ® or ™ symbol. However, I find copy and paste to be faster. That is, you can copy and paste the symbol right from this webpage into your document.
Why you almost never see the ℠ symbol
The ℠ symbol means “service mark”, which indicates services (rather than goods). However, because the abbreviation SM has another, derogatory meaning, it is rarely used. The ™ symbol works identically, and, should be preferred.